While dental implants are a key tool in replacing missing teeth, bone loss remains a risk. Researchers from the University of Dammam in Saudi Arabia and the University of Kentucky in Lexington, then, decided to investigate if implants with a microthreaded-neck design would preserve more of the crestal bone than traditional machine- or rough-surface implants.
Based on their review of 23 articles published between 1995 and 2016, the researchers concluded that the addition of deeper threads on the implant allowed for more stabilization between the implant and the bone, especially with weaker bones. Also, the threads created more bone-to-implant contact and allowed for more of the bone to be preserved.
According to the researchers, their work is one of the earliest projects to provide high evidence from literature about the design of the most current generation of dental implants, including a continuous microrough or nanorough surface extending up to the implant neck, along with microthreads in the cervical region. Their systematic review was designed to evaluate and analyze the effect of a microthreaded-neck implant on crestal bone loss as determined by various clinical trials.
The study, the researchers said, shows that thread geometry affects the amount of stress and strain on the implant and that crestal bone loss can be minimized. Practitioners can use this finding to make a more informed decision in choosing an implant type for their patients. The researchers also believe that additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate how the microthreaded implant will affect different types of bone loss under different implantation techniques.
The study, “Microthreaded Implants and Crestal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review,” was published by the Journal of Oral Implantology.