Dental implants can be effective in replacing failed or missing teeth, ensuring aesthetics and saving smiles. But poor oral hygiene, residual cement, smoking, and other risk factors can lead to peri-implant disease, which resembles periodontal disease. Research suggests salivary biomarkers may enhance diagnostic sensitivity for peri-implant disease assessment.
One recent study investigated the association of salivary periodontopathogen count and salivary interleukin-1 beta (IL-1b) level with the peri-implant crevicular fluid IL-1b response at peri-implant mucositis (PM) sites among subjects with differing periodontal disease susceptibility.
The researchers examined 87 partially edentulous subjects with at least one implant with PM: 40 with a history of chronic periodontitis (P), and 47 with no history of periodontitis (NP). Salivary IL-1b, peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) IL-1b, and salivary red complex pathogen counts were recorded.
The subjects were scored according to a threshold salivary pathogen level of more than 5log (10) counts and assigned a red complex score. Quartiles of salivary and PICF IL-1b levels also were scored. The researchers computed the area under receiver operating curve (AUC) to predict the highest PICF IL-1b score using salivary biomarkers as predictors. They also performed age-adjusted logistic regression for the significant predictors.
In the NP group, red complex score (AUC = 0.758, P = 0.010, odds ratio = 1.377) and salivary IL-1b (AUC = 0.708, P = 0.038, odds ratio 2.506) were significant predictors of the highest PICF IL-1b quartile score. In the P group, no significant associations were noted.
Salivary biomarkers, then, could distinguish the “high” pro-inflammatory responders at PM sites only in subjects without inherent periodontal disease susceptibility. Periodontal susceptibility may impact the immun0-inflammatory response in sub-peri-implant niches of those with peri-implant mucositis.
The study, “Salivary IL-1b and Red Complex Bacteria as Predictors of the Inflammatory Status in Sub-Peri-Implant Niches of Subjects with Peri-Implant Mucositis,” was published by Clinical Oral Implants Research.