Scaffold Uses Growth Factor to Improve Periodontal Regeneration

26 Oct 2016
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(A) Collagen hydrogel. (B) Sponge form of collagen. (C) Collagen hydrogel scaffold. (D) Thin-sliced sections of collagen hydrogel scaffold. Penetration of hydrogel (light-stained area) was observed in the sponge form of collagen. Staining: hematoxylin and eosin. (Scale bars represent 5 mm (B, C) and 100 µm (D)). (A) Collagen hydrogel. (B) Sponge form of collagen. (C) Collagen hydrogel scaffold. (D) Thin-sliced sections of collagen hydrogel scaffold. Penetration of hydrogel (light-stained area) was observed in the sponge form of collagen. Staining: hematoxylin and eosin. (Scale bars represent 5 mm (B, C) and 100 µm (D)). Image courtesy of The Open Dentistry Journal.

A new regenerative scaffold made of biosafe collagen hydrogel and collagen sponge could retain fibroblastic growth factor-2 (FGF2) and stimulate periodontal tissue regeneration. Developed at the Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, the scaffold would improve the outcome of periodontal regenerative surgery and support to prevent tooth loss compared to exiting scaffold materials, according to the researchers.

In periodontal regenerative therapy, stable periodontal attachments including the cementum and periodontal ligament should be reformed on the instrumented tooth surface and stimulate alveolar bone regeneration. But periodontal attachment is difficult to reform because the rapid growth of the junctional epithelium and gingival connective tissue inhibit the growth of periodontal tissue associated with periodontal attachment.

Predictable periodontal regenerative procedures, then, require the development of compatible biomaterial against the periodontal stem cells, progenitors, and tissues. Collagen hydrogels cross-linked by an ascorbate-copper ion system exhibit high fluidity. To promote its operability, the researchers injected the FGF2-loaded collagen hydrogel into the biocompatible 3-D sponge-form collagen before implantation.

The combination of the collagen hydrogel scaffold and FGF2 exhibited good biodegradability of the scaffold and remarkably promoted periodontal healing, the researchers stated, involving the regeneration of cementum, periodontal ligament, and matured alveolar bone in beagles. Also, the FGF2-loaded hydrogel scaffold facilitated the formation of acellular cementum receiving insertions of Sharpey’s fibers continuous to periodontal membrane fibers (true regeneration).

Regenerated periodontal tissue would be effective for resisting the force of mastication, the researchers concluded. They also believe that this technique could replace the preexisting polymer scaffold and artificial bone graft in periodontal surgical therapy. The study, “Collagen Hydrogel Scaffold and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Accelerate Periodontal Healing of Class II Furcation Defects in Dog,” was published by The Open Dentistry Journal

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