Periodontal Disease and Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Patients

Assessing the relationship between blood glucose levels and clinical parameters of periodontal disease in diabetic patients, this recent study involved 65 diabetic and 81 nondiabetic individuals. The study was published online by Dr. J. E. Botero et al in the Journal of Periodontology. A full-mouth periodontal examination and prepandrial fasting glycemia values were recorded in each subject. Glycosylated hemoglobin was only measured in diabetic patients. A comparative analysis between groups (Mann-Whitney U-test) and a correlation analysis between glycemia and periodontal parameters were performed (Spearman test). The study found that nondiabetic patients presented more teeth than diabetic patients (P < .05). Diabetic patients with periodontitis displayed loss of periodontal clinical attachment compared to nondiabetics, but the highest value was observed in periodontitis patients who reported having a smoking habit. Furthermore, diabetic subjects with periodontitis presented higher glycemia and glycosylated hemoglobin values in contrast to gingivitis subjects. Diabetic patients with hyperglycemia had higher risk to develop periodontitis. A positive correlation was observed between glycemia and clinical attachment loss, while a negative correlation between glycemia and the number of teeth present was found. The study concluded that tooth and periodontal clinical attachment loss were increased by hyperglycemia in diabetic subjects. This study contributes to further evidence that diabetes could aggravate periodontal disease and affect the systemic health of individuals.
(Source: Journal of Periodontology. January 16, 2012; doi: 10.1902/jop.2012.110681)
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