Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Chronic Periodontitis

Various biomarkers are contained in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), including cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-10, among others. These biomarkers have been reported to correlate with gingival inflammation and periodontal status. Therefore, the analysis of GCF may be useful for the diagnosis of periodontal status. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is the first identified long pentraxin and is released by several cell types in response to proinflammatory signals. A study by Fujita et al of 50 patients with chronic periodontitis determined the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-10, and PTX3 in GCF from diseased and healthy sites. GCF samples were collected with paper strips from one periodontal diseased site and one periodontally healthy site per subject. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α were determined using a multiplexed bead immunoassay, and the PTX3 level was measured using an enzyme-linked im­munosorbent assay. The study found that mean clinical parameters were significantly higher at diseased sites as compared to healthy sites, and the mean levels of PTX3, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α were higher in diseased sites than in healthy sites. There were strong correlations be­tween PTX3 or IL-1β and periodontal status. The authors suggest that GCF PTX3 levels might be useful as a diagnostic marker for periodontal disease.
(Source: Odontology, DOI: 10.1007/s10266-011-0042-1; published online Sep­tember 20, 2011)
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