Vitamin D and Periodontitis

Vitamin D has been known to be associated with periodontitis, although the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Researchers investigated the effects of 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) on the expressions of interleukin IL-6 and IL-8 in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis W83. The study established primary cultures of hPDLCs from 10 donors and the cells of passage 4 were treated with 1,25D or P gingivalis individually, or 1,25D combined with P gingivalis. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 protein in hPDLCs were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were detected with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. It was found that P gingivalis significantly promoted the protein expressions of IL-6 and IL-8. P gingivalis at the multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100 exerted the strongest promotion effect on the IL-6 protein expression by 5.83-fold compared with the controls, and the IL-8 protein expression by 12.39-fold in hPDLCs at 24 hours. At 48 hours, 10-8 mol/L 1,25D had the best inhibition on the IL-8 protein expression in hPDLCs by 2.00-fold compared with the controls, and the IL-8 mRNA expression by 2.13-fold. The 10-8 mol/L 1,25D combined with P gingivalis (MOI 100) exerted the strongest inhibition effect on the IL-8 protein expression by 1.54-fold compared with P gingivalis treatment alone, and the IL-8 mRNA expression by 1.78-fold in hPDLCs at 12 hours. The 1,25D did not influence the expression of IL-6 in hPDLCs with or without P gingivalis treatment. It concluded that vitamin D may potentially inhibit the periodontal inflammation induced by P gingivalis partly by decreasing the IL-8 expression in hPDLCs.
(Source: Archives of Oral Biology. April 2013, Volume 58, Issue 4, pages 397 to 407