Melatonin Levels and Periodontitis

A study published in the Journal of Periodontology measured melatonin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid and saliva of patients with healthy oral tissues and varying degrees of periodontitis. A total of 70 subjects were examined and assigned to the following 4 groups: healthy periodontium (10 subjects), plaque-induced gingival inflammation (20 subjects), chronic periodontitis (20 subjects), and aggressive periodontitis (20 subjects). Gingival crevicular fluid and saliva samples were collected from each subject and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The study found that melatonin levels in both gingival crevicular fluid and saliva were lower in patients with chronic periodontitis (10.4 and 12.8 pg/mL, respectively) and aggressive periodontitis (8.4 and 8.8 pg/mL, respectively) than in patients with gingivitis (13.9 and 17.6 pg/mL, respectively) and in healthy subjects (16.6 and 22.9 pg/mL, respectively). The mean melatonin levels in both gingival crevicular fluid and saliva were statistically significantly higher in healthy patients compared to patients with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis; however, there was no significant difference in the plaque-induced gingival inflammation between the study groups. Melatonin levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva are decreased in diseased periodontal tissues, especially periodontitis. The melatonin level was lowest in the aggressive periodontitis group.
(Source: J Periodontol Res. October 3, 2012. doi: 10.1111/jre.12010.)
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