Periodontal Treatment and Plasma Lipoproteins Levels

Studies indicate that individuals with periodontitis have a significantly increased risk of developing coronary heart disease. Dyslipidemia may also be associated with this increased risk. A pilot study by Dr. Ana Pejcic et al published in Southern Medical Journal measured concentration of lipids in patients with moderate to severe periodontitis before local periodontal treatment, and 3, 6, and 12 months thereafter. The study involved 50 subjects with periodontitis and 25 subjects without periodontitis. Lipoproteins were measured using serological analyses; periodontal health indicators included the plaque index, gingival bleeding index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). Patients were nonsurgically treated with mechanical debridement of calculus once a week for one month. The study found a significant relationship between indicators of poor periodontal status and serum level lipoproteins. Periodontal therapy resulted in reduced pocket depth and bleeding indices, resulting in a significant reduction of local inflammation and tissue destruction. The levels of lipoproteins after therapy seemed to be lower than those reported before treatment in patients with periodontitis compared with healthy patients. Lipoproteins were significantly decreased after treatment (P < .005) except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which was not significantly reduced (P > .05). The study concludes that periodontal disease significantly affects the serum levels of lipoproteins and suggests that when following successful periodontal treatment, there is a decrease in serum lipid concentration. The study suggests that lipoproteins are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.
(Source: Southern Medical Journal. August 2011, Volume 104, Issue 8, Pages 547 to 552)
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